10 oldest cities
• Russia is an ancient country. And on its territory there are many cities whose age has exceeded a thousand years. The historical and cultural heritage that they have preserved is an invaluable gift from generations that have already gone to future generations.
• We present you the oldest cities.
10. Bryansk -1033 years
It is not known exactly when the city of Bryansk arose. The approximate date of its foundation is 985.
• In 1607, the city was burned down so that False Dmitry II would not get it. It was rebuilt and for the second time survived the siege of the Tushinsky Thief troops.
• In the 17th century Bryansk was one of the most important trade centers. And now it is an important industrial center of the country.
9. Pskov – 1115 years
The date of foundation of Pskov is considered to be 903, when the city was first mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle. Olga, the first Christian princess in Rus' and the wife of the Kyiv prince Igor Rurikovich, is from Pskov.
• For a long time Pskov was one of the largest cities in Europe and was an impenetrable barrier on the western borders of the country.
• And in March 1917, while at the Pskov station, the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated and became simply a Romanov citizen.
8. Smolensk – 1155 years
In September, beautiful and ancient Smolensk will celebrate its anniversary – 1155 years since its founding. It is only one year behind its closest rival in terms of being mentioned in the annals (863 versus 862 for Murom).
• For many centuries, this "key city" protected Moscow from the encroachments of a number of European countries. During the Time of Troubles, the inhabitants of Smolensk heroically kept the siege in the fortress, which was besieged by Polish troops, for 20 months. Although the Poles still managed to take the city, King Sigismund III, who spent all the money on the siege, had to abandon the idea of \uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbgoing to Moscow. And the Moscow garrison of the Poles, which did not receive military assistance, surrendered to the Russian militia under the leadership of Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin.
7. Murom – 1156 years
This small town, standing on the left bank of the Oka, is mentioned in The Tale of Bygone Years. Its name, presumably, came from the Muroma tribe, although historians do not exclude the reverse relationship. One of the main characters of the Russian epic epic, the legendary hero Ilya Muromets, originally from the city of Murom. The townspeople are proud of this and even erected a monument to the hero in the city park.
6. Rostov the Great – 1157 years
Rostov, the current center of the Yaroslavl region, has been conducting its official chronology since 862. After its foundation, the city became one of the most important settlements of the Rostov-Suzdal land. And the prefix "Great" appeared to him thanks to the "Ipatiev Chronicle". In it, when describing the events of 1151 (the victory of Prince Izyaslav Mstislavich over Yuri Dolgoruky), Rostov was called the Great.
5. Veliky Novgorod – 1159 years
In early June, Veliky Novgorod will celebrate the 1159th anniversary of its founding. Here, according to the official version, Rurik was called to reign. And in 1136 Novgorod became the first free republic in the history of feudal Rus'. The city escaped the fate of many Russian cities and was not affected by the Mongol invasion. Precious architectural monuments of Rus' of the pre-Mongolian period have been preserved in it to this day.
4. Staraya Ladoga – over 1251
In 2003, the village of Staraya Ladoga celebrated its 1250th anniversary. Until 1703, the settlement was called "Ladoga" and had the status of a city. The first mention of Ladoga dates back to 862 AD (the time of the calling for the reign of the Varangian Rurik). There is even a version that Ladoga is the first capital of Rus', because in it, and not in Novgorod, Rurik reigned.
3. Derbent – over 2000 years old
the southernmost, located in the Republic of Dagestan, officially celebrated its 2000th anniversary in September. However, many Derbent residents, as well as some scientists conducting excavations on the territory of Derbent, are sure that the city is 3000 years older.
• The Caspian Gates – namely, the ancient name of Derbent – as a geographical object was mentioned as early as the 438th century. BC e. in the writings of the ancient Greek geographer Hecateus of Miletus. And the beginning of the modern city was laid in 568 AD. e. Then Derbent was the Persian fortress of Naryn-Kala, with two fortress walls blocking the way along the coast of the Caspian Sea. And the earliest mention of Derbent as a stone city was in 37 AD or the XNUMXth year of the reign of Shah Khosrov I Anushirvan.
• The date of 2000 years is not exact, but more of an anniversary, and refers to the time of the appearance of the first fortifications in Caucasian Albania.
2. Feodosia – 2549 years
One of the oldest cities with the beautiful name of Feodosia, which translates as "given by God", was founded by the Greeks in the 6th century BC. In the 13th century, on the site of Feodosia, the Genoese founded a trading city called Kafa and built a fortress, which, although not completely, has survived to this day. A sad fact: it was from Kafa in the 14th century that a plague called the Black Death began to spread throughout Europe.
• In 1475 the city was captured by the Turks and became part of the Ottoman Empire. However, in 1783, Kafa, like the rest of the Crimea, became part of the Russian Empire and regained its original name – Feodosia.
• One of the most beautiful cities in Crimea is distinguished not only by its ancient and eventful history, but also by a large number of attractions. Here is the largest (417 works) collection of paintings by Ivan Aivazovsky, who lived in Feodosia all his life.
• By the way, the famous artist did a favor to his native city not only in terms of art, but also in terms of transport development. It was he who ensured that a railway appeared in Feodosia, which turned the resort city into an important transport hub of the Crimea.
• Also in the city there is a small house-museum of Alexander Grin, the author of the famous "Scarlet Sails" and "Running on the Waves".
1. The oldest city – Kerch
Until when the Crimean peninsula returned to Russia, Derbent bore the title of the oldest Russian city. However, in 2017, Rambler / Saturday media reported that The Scientific Council of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences recognized Kerch as the most ancient city. On the territory of the city, the ruins of the ancient Greek colony of Panticapaeum have been preserved. Historically, Kerch is the heiress of Panticapaeum and its age has exceeded 2600 years.
According to archaeological research, the foundation of Kerch refers to the time range from 610 to 590 BC. e. On its territory, historical and architectural monuments belonging to different eras have been preserved. Among them are: mounds with burials of the Bronze Age, the ruins of the city of Nymphaeum, the settlement of Mirmekiy, etc.
Far from immediately, Kerch received its current name, after Panticapaeum ceased to be the historical and cultural center of the Black Sea region.
- In the 8th century, the city came under the rule of the Khazar Khaganate and was renamed from Panticapaeum to Karsha or Charsha.
- In the 10th century, the Northern Black Sea region came under the control of the Rus. The Tmutarakan principality appeared, which also included the city of Karsha, called Korchev. It was one of the most important sea gates of Kievan Rus.
- In the 12th century, Korchevo came under the rule of Byzantium, and in the 14th century it became part of the Black Sea Genoese colonies, and was called Vospro, as well as Cherkio. The local inhabitants have preserved the name Korchev in everyday life.
- In the 15th century, the merchant and diplomat Josaphat Barbaro named the city Chersh (Kersh) in one of the chapters of his essay “Journey to Tanu”.
- In 1475 the Turks took over the Genoese colonies and Cerchio became part of the Ottoman Empire. The city began to be called Cherzeti. He repeatedly suffered from the raids of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks.
- In the 16th century, the ambassadors of the Moscow tsars, going to the Crimean Khan, knew the city as "Kerch".
- In 1774, Kerch (already under its final name) became part of the Russian Empire. This happened as a result of the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774.
• In order for Kerch to officially top the list of the oldest cities, it is necessary to obtain the approval of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian government. The management of the East Crimean Reserve prepared the relevant documents last year.