Ranking of countries in terms of mortality due to malnutrition
• The ongoing "belt-tightening" is making adjustments not only to the purchasing power of Russians, but also to their eating habits. You have to buy not what you want, but what is cheaper, albeit not very useful and of high quality.
However, malnutrition may not hit the wallet hard, but it hits the cardiovascular system a lot. This was proved by the experts of the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, who compiled in 2019 list of countries with the highest death rate due to malnutrition. Should we be proud that the first ten places in it went to the states that were previously part of the USSR?
Purpose and methodology of the study
• The researchers were tasked with highlighting the association between selected dietary risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the WHO European Region.
• The experts used a group of indicators called the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate diet-related cardiovascular disease mortality.
• This assessment includes eleven forms of cardiovascular disease, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs in 51 European countries.
• The 12 most important dietary factors for developing heart and vascular problems include:
- diet low in fiber;
- lack of fruit;
- lack of legumes;
- lack of nuts and seeds;
- lack of polyunsaturated fatty acids;
- lack of omega-3 fatty acids from seafood;
- lack of vegetables;
- lack of whole grains;
- a diet high in processed meats;
- high sodium content;
- use sweetened drinks – one of the most harmful in the world;
- eating foods with trans fatty acids.
• Consumption data were collected from several sources, including European nutrition surveys, household budget surveys, and UN Food and Agriculture Organization balance sheets and food supply bills. In addition, for sodium and trans fatty acids, data were used on the daily allowance of sodium in the urine and the presence of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in packaged foods, respectively. All nutrition data (except sodium and sweetened drinks) were standardized to 2000 kcal/day.
• The period of study was taken from 1990-2016.
Complete ranking of deaths due to malnutrition
Results of the study
• The countries of the post-Soviet space are leading in mortality from pathologies of the heart and blood vessels associated with malnutrition. And the leader in sad statistics is Uzbekistan (394 deaths per 100 people).
- The countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia consistently have the highest mortality rates (average 304 and 289 per 67, respectively). With the exception of Turkey, which has a dietary mortality rate of 100 per 000 people.
- In Central Europe (average 177 deaths per 86 inhabitants), rates ranged from 100 deaths per 000 population in Slovenia to 260 deaths per 100 population in Bulgaria.
- In Western Europe (average 64 per 100 people), the highest rate was found in Greece (000 deaths per 100 inhabitants) and the lowest in Spain and Israel (100 cases per 000 people each).
- In the post-Soviet space, things are best with proper nutrition. So far, our country has the lowest death rate from heart and vascular diseases caused by errors in the diet. It is 291 deaths per 100 population.
What is the relationship between a balanced diet and CVD?
• In 2016, dietary risks were associated with 2,1 million deaths from cardiovascular disease in the WHO European Region. And here's how dietary risks affected it:
- A lack of whole grains in the diet has led to an estimated 429 deaths.
- The second most dangerous is the lack of nuts and seeds in the diet – 341 deaths.
- The third most dangerous is the lack of fruit – 262 deaths.
- Not good for the body high sodium diet – 251 deaths.
- And in fifth place in terms of danger was a lack of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet – 227 deaths.
• Thus, by balancing the daily menu of Europeans, theoretically, one in five premature deaths can be avoided.
• As usual, the authors of the study have two news for readers – good and bad.
Good news: age-standardized mortality rates have declined over the past 26 years.
Bad news: The absolute number of diet-related cardiovascular deaths increased between 2010 and 2016 by 25 deaths in Western Europe and by 600 deaths in Central Asia.
• With regard to specific cardiovascular diseases, 1,76 million deaths (84% of the total) associated with dietary errors were due to coronary heart disease. It is followed by ischemic stroke (175 deaths or 202% of the total) and hemorrhagic stroke (8,3 deaths or 132%).
• In 2016, approximately 601 deaths (000% of all diet-related CVD deaths) occurred in adults under 28,6 years of age. In simple terms: eat healthy food – you can live longer.